In this Talk, Agnew explains what’s going on in Italy, how borders crumble and the contingency of the nation … The authors have studied the specifics of the emergence of the Adyghes’ social-integrative potential in its historical perspective based on “Adygag’e” as a social-regulatory system. Borders are no longer identified as geometries of strategic significance, rather as a dynamic process in itself. There were exceptions to the rule, but the overall view, only fifteen years after the dramatic first half of the century in which, ders. In preparing these transcripts, we thank Lea Doughty, Lisa Marr and the Centre for Global Migrations at the University of Otago. The focus throughout is on major works in the field, for no one document could cover all of the myriad scholarship that has been published. This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world since 1900. This research identifies three national institutions of heritage and memory work in Wales to. This chapter asserts that there is no teaching about borderlands without geography, and that the geographic perspective is inextricably connected to learning about borderlands. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The Great Powers and Urbanization Project (GPUP) Explore. Through a series of successes and failures, some Welsh national heritage institutions have expanded their understanding of Wales to include the pluralistic historiography which guided and continues to impact the development and composition of Welsh society. С другой стороны, слишком большие социокультурные различия провоцируют возникновение ментальных границ, ограничивающих трансграничные взаимодействия, ... Na América do Sul, o uti possidetis de facto e de juris foram acepções divergentes que embasaram as negociações políticas e os conflitos regionais por porções territoriais (CERVO, 2010). In addition, he has written extensively about borders, boundaries and frontiers. Conventional thinking relies on three geographical assumptions ‐ states as fixed units of sovereign space, the domestic/foreign polarity, and states as ‘containers’ of societies ‐ that have led into the ‘territorial trap’. Title: The geopolitics of borders and boundaries: Author(s): Houtum, H.J. The Continuing Relevance of Borders in Contemporary Contexts. Even when political rule is territorial, territoriality does not necessarily entail the practices of total mutual exclusion which dominant understandings of the modern territorial state attribute to it. Agnew later called the territorial trap of the state. Correspondingly the relation between borders and security has also changed in view of the larger international developments such as globalisation, which challenged the construct of territorialisation by promoting free movement of goods, services, people … Login; Hi, User . DGfG 2017). Indeed, borders have become prominent topics of research for a range of scholars from across the social sciences and humanities. Contemporary events call this approach into question. boundaries, geopolitics was all about Great Powers and empires dividing up the world and imposing territorial control over it. In a way, decades is a turn from a focus on boundar, borders as socio-territorial constructs. The Geopolitics of Europe’s Identity Centers, Boundaries, and Margins. and restrictive membership are sacrosanct’. to states alone, making the claim of a territorial, lict management of a border, the societal, These two now classic distinctions are arguably a sign of the times as, based on the works of post-structuralists, ourdieu and De Certeau, that is used for studying, shield it off against the socio-spatially, from territory or society, but a socio-spatially, pointing to the psycho-analytical turn of human, in, philosopher Will Kymlicka argues that, ‘Any political theory’, he goes on to say, ‘which has nothing to say about, onservative view that existing boundaries, s are here and here to stay and the only thing that, s in border studies that needs continuation, I believe that. Thesecond studyexaminedthe learning requirements of pupils in terms of everyday perceptions and experiences regarding boundaries. Wales, as a nation embedded with industrial, colonial, and linguistic legacies, faces significant challenges as it navigates the rapidly shifting geopolitics of Europe, the United Kingdom, and its own institutions. Durante mucho tiempo se pensó que los encuentros iniciales entre los europeos y los grupos étnicos de la región del Plata fueron hostiles. The course offers insights to the processes involved in resolving border and territorial disputes and tackling contemporary issues such as water conflict. 4, (2005), pp. , Borderlines 18, (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press 2001). While for Wilson and Donnan (2012a, p. 18) the nation-state remains "the central thread running through" border studies, others, ... Bu durum uluslararası ticaretin gerçekleştiği sınır bölgelerini daha da önemli hale getirmektedir. geopolitics which have interesting things, different from todays’ approach? This entry focuses primarily on how the ideals of social welfare have been established within these countries throughout the past century. For this purpose, pupils of the 9th grade, with and without migration background or experiences of flight were interviewed. 10, No. It, scholar to be reminded again by Minghi that boundaries touch the heart of the, are in the dominant academic thinking of the various times. По мнению ряда ученых, социальные и культурные контакты могут развивать чувство близости и доверия, способствуя установлению отношений, ... С одной стороны, различия между территориями, уникальность и незнакомость чужих мест способствуют пересечению границ с различными целями (туризм, досуг, шопинг и т.д.) This book pursues an original perspective on Europe's shifting extent and geopolitical standing: how countries and spaces marginal to it impact on Europe as a center. Have we become afraid to be named an essentialist or determinist, a critical or radical lens on society. FGEO 1465-0045 0000-0000 Geopolitics, Vol. In what way does, What reality are we making when b/ordering ourselves and others? The main theoretical argument is that the geopolitics of cities have to do with a crossing of scales – from the neighbourhood scale to the city level and then to the colonial apparatuses of the state. Search: Search all titles ; Search all collections ; Introduction to Geopolitics. A fronteira é uma porção geográfica, a qual se singulariza por ser uma parte territorial sensível ao contato com ou-tras nações, as quais comportam regras e instituições que podem diferir do país vizinho. The insight that the making of borders is the, social practices and habitus has lead to the study of b, such as (macro-)regions, cities or neighbourhoods, a border has become, of the works in border studies. [22], а отсутствие значимых различий и исчезновение «непривычности» зарубежных мест снижает их привлекательность для посетителей. The Geopolitics, Resources and Territory MA will introduce you to legal, technical and practical factors of the creation and maintenance of international boundaries on land and sea, natural resource disputes. -Authors. Recent initiatives in geography education have created an opportunity to teach about the margins (i.e., borderlands) from this marginalized perspective. Geography lessons occupy a key position at this point and can therefore make a significantcontribution to the political education of students by not describing these spatial-political boundaries as natural phenomena, but instead by highlighting how they are constructed communicatively and socially and what consequences these spatial and borderconstructions have on different scales and for different individuals and groups. So, here goes… Why property? Our Spaces. Areas are identified in which critical geopolitics could engage productively with research and scholarship in related fields. Host an Event at Perry World House Explore. The present dissertation summarizes these three studies against the background of theoverarching research question: "How can the current state of research in political geographyregarding bordersbe conceptualized and developed further in order to be used in geography lessons?“ The first part of the study provides a theoretical basis by developing a model for dealing with borders from a didactic perspective. Where in the early 1960s, the field of border studies was pre-dominantly focused on the study of the, demarcation of boundaries, the lines, now the field of boundaries and border. At a time when populist voices are throwing seemingly simple answers regarding globalization and migration movements into the room and pleading for isolation as a solution, the didactics of geography should contribute to giving pupils the tools to form a differentiated opinion for themselves. The essentiality of this study was pioneered during The Second World War (Paasi, 2009). 226-30. Publications. The Geopolitics of Europe’s Identity Centers, Boundaries, and Margins. The past decade has witnessed a renewed interest in boundaries, both within geography and from the wider field of social theory. of a debate on good and bad borders, in other words, the ethics and justice of, socio-spatial borders. Published. Y1 - 2012. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: the Social Organiza-, (London, George Allen and Unwin 1969); H. Donnan and T. Wi, Review of International Political Economy. Registered in England & Wales No. Environmental determinists or geopoli-, ators of socially constructed mindscapes and meaning. international boundaries and borders – political, economic, legal and ethical, and, in 2020, health – are being acutely challenged. geopolitical boundaries are historically fluid. The study of borders has moved beyond the limited confines of the political geography discourse, crossing its own disciplinary boundaries, to include sociologists, political scientists, historians, international lawyers and scholars of international relations. Globalization as we know it today did not just come out of geographical thin air and it has definite geopolitical roots and biases. existence. Borders and Boundaries Project Personnel. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Borderlands present distinctive sites and situations in daily life and have implications for issues combining politics, society, culture, history, and the environment. On the other hand, its positive achievements can be used to obtain advantages unheard of prior to the 3rd millennium: each ethnicity can give the world the unique features of its culture. International Bulletin of Mission Research. Driven by data. Albert, M. (1998) ‘On boundaries, territory and postmodernity: An international relations perspective’, Geopolitics, 3(1), pp. AU - Strandsbjerg, Jeppe. Prof. David Newman: “Basically the work I did on Israeli geopolitics; on Israel and the West Bank, boundaries, settlements and I realised that territorial trend is a very important part of understanding global political change. A theoretical discussion of borders and margins is developed, and set against nine studies of countries, regions, and identities seen as marginal to Europe. can be critically engaged with is the way borders are being produced and, this lens could be widened to open up for a debate on alternative ways to, produce territories and spatialise our so, question why humans are producing and reproducing borders, but also what, are there socio-spatial alternatives that could be produced? New York, NY: Springer. 10, iss. O questionamento deste artigo é: as políticas paraguaias e uruguaias corroboram com a segurança fronteiriça e incorporam vetores explícitos de cooperação e integração fronteiriça com o Brasil? Wardenga 2002), which also form the basis of national educational standards (cf. Why are we still haun, from a biological point of view or it is merely a strategic choice than can be, put on and off? Borders, Boundaries and Frontiers: Notes on Jerusalem's Present Geopolitics ... geopolitics by suggesting that the geopolitics of cities have much to do with the crossing of scales – from the neighbourhood scale to the city level and then to the colonial apparatus of the state. All content in this area was uploaded by Henk van Houtum on Jan 12, 2019, What a joy it was. On the one hand, globalization, which irrevocably intrudes into the spiritual sphere of the smaller peoples, the Circassians being one of them, is destroying the national partitions and importing global (not necessarily American or Western) values, thus unifying ethnic cultures. The Geopolitics of Borders and Boundaries. Strictly anchored in the strategic and utilitarian logic and necessity, border largely remained the sensitive and sovereign limits of the state that is to be religiously preserved and protected. The end of the Cold War, the increased velocity and volatility of the world economy, and the emergence of political movements outside the framework of territorial states, suggest the need to consider the territoriality of states in historical context. A theoretical discussion of borders and margins is developed, and set against nine studies of countries, regions, and identities By Tarek Osman (@TarekmOsman) Presenter: The Making of the Modern Arab World. border is now understood as a verb in the sense of bordering. In other words, the. After this, it examines social policy and welfare services and how they are influenced and fostered in different countries. Essa delimitação territorial produzida historicamente, socialmente e politicamente ao longo do tempo, ... O conceito de fronteiras utilizado é o de que são ocorrências políticas geradas a partir de relações sociais, as quais, externamente, visam separar as coletividades e, internamente, unir um grupo por meio de práticas de discurso e das relações políticas, sociais, econômicas e culturais, ... O conceito de fronteiras utilizado é o de que são ocorrências políticas geradas a partir de relações sociais, as quais, externamente, visam separar as coletividades e, internamente, unir um grupo por meio de práticas de discurso e das relações políticas, sociais, econômicas e culturais (HOUTUM, 2005;PAASI, 1996). Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, The Geopolitics of Borders and Boundaries, Nijmegen Centre for Border Research, Radboud University , The Netherlands, /doi/pdf/10.1080/14650040500318522?needAccess=true. Cities, Geopolitics, and the International Legal Order Report and Thought Pieces. Geopolitics of identity, integral to the establishment of a trans-boundary borderland, challenge the importance of the hyphen in nation-state. UK. as to differentiate between boundaries, borders, borderlands . Houtum H. van and Boedeltje F. (2009), “Europe’s Shame. In this introduction, we elaborate the two concepts separately before examining possible ways to link them theoretically. This edited volume explores the crossings, permeations, and constructions of cultural and political borders between peoples and territories, examining how walls, borders, and boundaries signify both interdependence and contact within sites of conflict and separation. What precisely drives the seemingly persistent human moti-, vation to call a territory one’s or our own, to demarcate. Since the fall of the communist regimes, we have been witnessing in Europe two phenomena that dominate the geopolitical scene: on the one hand there is integration, with the advance of the borders of the European Union (EU) towards the east through its two enlargements, and on the other hand there is disintegration, as expressed by social crisis, and latent tensions and conflicts in the countries found beyond the said border. It is also my hope that this study presents a viable extension to landscape analysis through a transoptic understanding which includes, yet reaches beyond, the material into the sonic, experiential, or even spiritual. Back to main menu. This book pursues an original perspective on Europe's shifting extent and geopolitical standing: how countries and spaces marginal to it impact on Europe as a center. These can be brought together within a multidimensional, multidisciplinary framework for the future study of boundary phenomena. For this purpose, three partial studies were carried out and their results published in professional journals. van: Publication year: 2005: Source: Geopolitics, vol. Article. Borders and boundaries, commonly defined as the lines dividing distinct political, social, or legal territories, are arguably the most ubiquitous features within the field of political geography. National strategies … The boundary remains a material and ideological geopolitical feature. This has to do with the impact of borders and territoriality, the role of which is not diminishing. The borders in the Caucasus were poorly defined. The return to geo-, conclusion of his 1963 paper, that is, ‘the study of internat, in political geography, however, must also take the view that boundaries, as. It could lead to fresh debates on what lines in spaces, geometry and it could invoke what is often lacking in the current border, Another crucial element in both classic works is the distinction made. N2 - Critical Border Studies emphasise how distinct political spaces are produced by borders. Spatial borders are a very complex social and geographical phenomenon. This edited volume explores the crossings, permeations, and constructions of cultural and political borders between peoples and territories, examining how walls, borders, and boundaries signify both interdependence and contact within sites of conflict and separation. This distinction has become classic. Previous positions of Mr Foucher include Ambassador to Latvia and head of the Policy Planning Staff of the Foreign Ministry. Link/Page Citation Blouet contends that the history of geopolitics is a history of bad ideas that have led countries to wars and recessions. 7 Borders could be defined in several ways (Starr and Most, 1976); however, even regarding the same kind of borders, not all border communities have the same characteristics, since not all are dissected by the border in the same way (Wilson and Donnan, 1998). Boundaries and borders have continually maintained their position as crucial research points in political geography, despite their varying relevance over past centuries. The COVID-19 pandemic has already closed borders, battered the economy, overwhelmed critical health infrastructure, and killed thousands. In the third study, the focus was on the representations and concepts of digital games with regard to spatial boundaries and their potential for being addressed in geography lessons. Terrorism and the International Legal Order, with Special Reference to the UN, the EU and Cross-Border Aspects. The “left” will hate my uncompromising views on private property. B/ordering in th, cally the desire to distance oneself from the othe, evolutionary psychology and environmental psychol. E-mail:, The Geopolitics of Borders and Boundaries, der studies, it can be argued that the dominant voice is now nota, even claiming that they have never been modern, but by and, a broader time-horizon these are merely nuances, relevant and immensely, fascinating to study as they may be. More precisely, boundary, studies (where the border is) and border studies (how the border is socially, constructed) have in fact grown apart, have become detached from each, other to become separate subfields. Houtum H. van (2005), “The Geopolitics of Borders and Boundaries”, Geopolitics, 10, 4, pp. O método utilizado é o método comparado, o que faz com que esse artigo também pertença ao campo da Política Comparada, já que esse é um campo definido por seu método. Borders, Boundaries and Frontiers: Notes on Jerusalem's Present Geopolitics. interesting authors writing on these borders before Ratzel. Neil Lock. Let’s look at a series of political maps below that explains Europe’s current geopolitical realities. Seminar Series Explore. Back to main menu. PY - 2012. In this article I suggest that the order of this relationship should be reversed. Geography Education and the Borderlands: Using a Marginalized Discipline to Teach about the Margins, BORDERS, NEIGHBORS, AND NEIGHBORHOOD IN THE LIFE OF SMALL RUSSIAN BORDER TOWNS. Security on the Border Between Brazil and Paraguay: is it Possible to Cooperate? are there borders in the first place? justified at all, ‘at least if these boun, freely, and living, working and voting in whatever part of the globe they see. mary, attention to the question of the where. These borderlands highlight a geography of cultural groups that do not lie neatly within state boundaries, but often spill over territorial lines—woven together across the globe in networks of migration and cultural associations that intersect state boundaries. But each country has evolved differently due to distinctive historical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. The interest fo, in the meaning of the construction and representation of difference, could, be considered as the off-spring of the postmodern turn in, has been put forward in this debate that bord, knowledge and interpretation and that they as s, it has been claimed that the difference between the ontology of borders, the, study of what borders are, and the epistemology of borders, the, what and how we know what borders are, has decreased i, peared. The traditional adyghe culture in the context of globalization: Social integration as a factor of de... International social work and social welfare: Middle East and North Africa, THE MEMORY WORK OF WELSH HERITAGE: MULTIDIMENSIONAL LANDSCAPES OF A MULTINATIONAL WALES. They fall. Please see Oxford entry below and for more details at Modern geopolitics was the politics of border construction but the way borders came to be understood changed dramatically over time. This has had a tremendous effec, ies and possibly is, in our time of postmodernisation of scie, explanations of the mushrooming of study centres, conferences and articles, on borders. Moreover, Mr Foucher is member of the Council of Foreign Affairs (Paris). The model is also the basis for the two follow-up studies. borders are ‘a source of embarrassment for liberals of all stripes’. Search all titles. Both subfields h, tional expertise centres, their own journals and the, discussion between the two subfields, were no, and a possible (land-artistic) re-visioning of the border(land). 2005. Si bien es cierto que el encuentro de Solís con los indígenas fue desafortunado 1 , análisis de fuentes posteriores pero del mismo período nos demuestran que la interacción entre ambas sociedades –la indígena y la europea– estuvo oscilando entre hostilidades e intercambios de bienes e información y, a medida que la población europea se expandía y consolidaba, esta interacción se fue diversificando. The border of the Soviet Union collapsed, and a multitude of countries popped up to reclaim their past. We are children of, our time. He is currently Professor of geography and geopolitics at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris Ulm). To be more precise, in, ing the fascinating width and range of border studies. Then, the debate was perhaps leanin, towards the demarcation of the boundary, the where and the chan, where, and there was too little attention on the social formati, ders. The authors review and locate the emerging literature of critical geopolitics. Since its founding as the International Boundaries Research Unit in 1989, IBRU has been the world’s leading research centre on international boundary making and dispute resolution, creating impact through the services it provides to the public and private sectors. This commentary provides some reflections on van Houtum and van Naerssen’s paper that seek to foster not only an appreciation of the research avenues it has opened but also a critical interrogation of its shortcomings. This entry examines, first, the economic, social, and political features of social welfare services in different countries at various stages of development. boundaries, geopolitics was all about Great Powers and empires dividing up the world and imposing territorial control over it. [Noel Parker;] -- This book pursues an original perspective on Europe's shifting extent and geopolitical standing: how countries and spaces marginal to it impact on Europe as a center. By claiming that all borders are human-made, and by den, there are natural borders, just as I find, natural in the first place. Physical barriers have always been a challenge to the human spirit’s desire to overcome all obstacles. In Wales, this transoptic and multicultural understanding of Welsh history, memory, landscape, and identity may illuminate future pathways of inclusion and empowerment throughout the nation’s minority populations. political dividers, separate peoples of different nationalities and, therefore, geographer ‘must undertake investigations in th, That this was the conclusion of Minghi’s overview of 1963 says a lot, Ratzel and his view of the borders of nation-states. 2002. ferently, the attention has moved away from the study of the evolution and, practices that constitute and represent differences in space. This research aims to define trends within these geographical studies in terms of the EU integration process and discover commonalities of themes and methods within them. 10, No. Alexander B. Murphy (no date) ‘Historical Justifications for Territorial Claims’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers . THE GEOPOLITICS OF EUROPE’S BORDERS THE GEOPOLITICS OF EUROPE’S BORDERS STEFAN PAUN 2009-01-01 00:00:00 ŞTEFAN PĂUN Politehnica University ABSTRACT. The peoples of Russia, the Caucasian peoples in the first place, are keenly aware of the critical reassessment of their cultural-civilizational identity, which is manifested in forms of sociocultural, ethnopolitical, and national self-awareness. van: Publication year: 2005: Source: Geopolitics, vol. A SEGURANÇA NA FRONTEIRA ENTRE BRASIL E PARAGUAI: É POSSÍVEL COOPERAR? Geopolitics. It remains to be seen which of the structures of ethnic culture will be affected and to what extent, as well as the direction in which these changes will move. Back to main menu. The North Caucasian peoples will have no choice but to adjust themselves to the development of world civilization. Finally, we argue that an intersectional perspective makes it possible to establish how the interplay of different social categories affects the articulations and repercussions of borders and boundaries. It’s an invitation to ‘migrate’ towards an alternative politics of hope. Seminar Series Explore. Grounded in humanistic political geography (HPG) and the ideas of philosopher Edward Casey, this work proposes a three-pronged organizational framework (HPG borderland theory) for teaching about borderlands: 1) borderlands as historical documents, 2) places of convergence, and 3) expressions. El diario de viaje de Solís se ha extraviado pero, a través de los primeros cronistas, nos llegaron las primeras noticias de los grupos étnicos que habitaban sus costas. This literature analyses geopolitics as discourse and also deconstructs policy texts to examine the use of geographical reasoning in statecraft. Aquí proponemos detenernos únicamente en las costas del Plata y analizar la interacción entre los primeros conquistadores y los diversos grupos étnicos que la habitaban. Re-reading two of the classic works in boundary and border, political geography of 1963 and Victor Prescott’s work on the geography of, frontiers and boundaries published in 196, under the rubric ‘the classics revisited’, inspiring experience to be reminded again of the early insights o, be considered two of the founding-persons in boundary and border studies. T1 - Cartopolitics, Geopolitics and Boundaries in the Arctic. The synergy, ders and boundaries. In the longer run, the virus appears likely to leave lasting and potentially major effects on the global order itself: on the balance of power, the health of international institutions, and more. Geopolitics play an important role in a country's policy towards national boundaries. Why, from an economic perspective, is the economy not borderless? nected to that other classic distinction, namely that between good and bad, borders. Por este motivo, los historiadores reconocen como el "descubridor oficial" del Río de la Plata a Juan Díaz de Solís, quien en 1516 tomó posesión de ese río a nombre del rey de España. Rather, I would welcome very much, a more lively and engaged discussion on the justification of our borderings, per se. Basic Page Sidebar Menu Perry World House . 3099067 In this article I suggest that the order of this relationship should be reversed. That is the question of the. Cities, Geopolitics, and the International Legal Order Report and Thought Pieces. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. It’s quite short. Houtum H. van & Pijpers R. (2007), “The European Union as a Gated Community: The Two-Faced Border and Immigration Regime of the EU”, Antipode 39, 2, pp. Despite its relevance to understanding globalization and marginalization, geography education has occupied its own intellectual borderland, having been on the margins of American education for decades. DANS is an institute of KNAW and NWO. Borders and boundaries are entangled, but they promote different forms and experiences of inclusion and exclusion. Prescott was particularly active in examining the problems generated by maritime boundaries and borders, and resolution of disputes through negotiation and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Where is the border located, how did it came about, evolve, change over time, became the topic of (mili-, teenth century and the first half of the twentieth century and hence of their, overview. constructed and constitutive Them, the Others. But this is to draw too bold a line between a world that is and a world that was. * Descriptions of land and maritime boundaries and a summary of territorial settlements and treaties between contiguous countries * A geopolitical index, assigned to each country border, considering all aspects of geography-including physical, historical, economic, strategic, and social dimensions--and all levels of political decision-making Mo, times we are living in that Antipode, the journal of radical geog, the anti-essentialist, anti-determinist (and anti-neo-liberal) ap, back to that important and thought-provoking q, does humankind produce borders? In the post-contemporary world, in which globalization creates localization, while localization, in turn, leads to globalization, it has become especially important to study all transformations of the ethno-linguistic cultures. ssentialistic and not focused on the line per se. It has lead to a bordering, value of each and every study copying this template for a specific case or, adding an interesting insight on another performance outlet of the construc-, tion of borders, I believe the present debate is somewhat out of, Maybe in this sense there is a similarity, of the twentieth century. Abstract: The hypothesis of this paper is that border policies closer to the realistic paradigm, especially in the field of security, for borders make it difficult, if not preclude, cooperation and integration of borders. Wherever you are on the political spectrum, this essay is likely to offend you. Search: Search all titles . This Special Issue tackles this conceptual gap by bringing the two fields of studies together: we argue that boundaries/boundary work and borders/ bordering should be treated as interrelated rather than distinct phenomena. The final section recognizes the trends and challenges facing this sector in an ever-changing world as these countries continue to develop regional models of practice. Why do we see borders still as given? Three approaches are identified (flow, cross‐border cooperation, and people), geographical studies of borders and border regions are categorized within them, and the approaches are compared to one another in an attempt to better understand the trends in geographical research on European borders and border regions. USD 59.99 Instant download; Readable on all devices; Own it forever; Local sales tax included if applicable; Buy Physical Book Learn about institutional subscriptions. It seems that the time has come to study the role ethnic cultures have played at different times in history and in different political contexts and to identify the principles and methods of an analysis of culture as a social phenomenon, its aims and potentials within a sociocultural analysis, and the conditions, tasks, and boundaries within which cultural policy can be realized in the Caucasus.
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