In Bangladesh, though the three Indian major carps form the principal component species in polyculture systems, silver carp, grass carp, common carp, orange-fin labeo (. Spawn of Catla with an initial length 5.50±0.04 mm and weight 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at the rate of 6, 8, 10 and 12 no.l-1 in cement tanks (2x1x1m). Rome, FAO. 99 pp. The animals were counted in a 1ml Sedgewick-Rafter Chamber. Catla fry are reared along with rohu and mrigala in equal proportions at combined densities of 0.2-0.3 million fry/ha. Nursery rearing of Indian major carp fry under different stocking densities. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg. The application of soap-oil emulsion, or repeated netting with a suitable mesh size, is used to eradicate aquatic insects before stocking. Commercial catla fish farming business is gaining popularity day by day. In general, carp are low-valued species fetching market prices of less than USD 1/kg at the producers' level; therefore, the use of major inputs such as seed, fertilizers and supplementary feed, besides labour costs, is kept to a minimum. ... growth of cultured fish species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) and production potential. Konkan Agricultural University, Ratnagiri,Maharastra, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work. Commercial feed (Sunder’s feed) was used as control. The daily average dissolved oxygen ranged between values of 4.24-4.43 mg l-1 during experimental period. Mohanty R.K. and Mishra A., Successful rice-fish integrated farming adopting rainwater conservation measure, Fishing Chimes, 22:97-99 (2003). A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. Volume 1. Fingerlings of Catla catla of relatively same size ranging from (8 to10 cm) and weight about (5-8 gm) were collected from culture ponds of Bharath Fish Farm, Poondi, Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. Sustainable freshwater aquaculture in India.In: T. J. Pandian (ed. The present study aims to assess the possibility of fry production of freshwater fish, Catla catla using green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, India. At the time of sampling, 75 fishes from each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length and weight of fishes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. However, low breeding response of catla has been experienced in several regions; this, together with the low survival of this species in the nursery stages compared to rohu and mrigal, sometimes leads to shortages in seed supply. Popularity of commercial catla fish farming is very high mainly due to it’s fast growth rate, great taste and nutrition and also high market demand. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Aquaculture Living resources, 2 81-89 (1989). After the experimental period, there was a significant decrease in anaerobic bacteria and a significant colonization of candidate probiotics in guts of fish fed with flocculated algae‐enriched Artemia. The values were found to be in an optimal range and this might be due the use of harvested rain water containing calcium hardness and magnesium hardness. Jhingran, V.G. Locally-produced fresh fish fetches about one and half times higher market price than iced-fish. from Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan”. The eggs are demersal at first, gradually becoming buoyant. Export to South-East Asian and Middle-East countries. Fisheries can be wild or farmed. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, contaminated feed, growth, vital organs, Catla catla fry. The maximum and minimum average length gain, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival values were 357.89±3.08%, 779.53±18.03%, 5.56±0.08%, 45.20±0.13% and 240.68 ±4.68%,512.70±20.87%,4.62±0.09%.26.50±0.07 % in T1 and T4 respectively. The experimental tanks were cleaned daily with the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten feed and fecal matter was performed after feeding. In a two-species commercial carp production system practised in the Koleru lake region of Andhra Pradesh, the major carp producing region in India, stocked catla constitute 20-30 percent of the total, the rest being rohu. The use of catla as a component in pond culture was a traditional practice in the eastern Indian states, spreading to all other Indian states only during the second half of the 20th century. Manually operated dragnets are the most commonly used gear for harvesting carps. The average ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen (mg l-1) ranged between values of 0.003-0.05, 0.002-0.005 and 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 during experimental period. Daily green water with mixed planktons was added in the experimental tank at the rate of 5% through daily exchange of 5% water from each experimental tank. [Draft report]. Except for icing for transport, post-harvest processing is almost non-existent. When synthetic formulations are used, a single dose of 0.4-0.5 ml/kg BW (females) or 0.2-0.3 ml/kg (males) is administered. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 45(2): 163-168. Singh, D.M. The average growth curve and subsequent prediction of growth were computed using SAS program was also studied by him. Indian major carp, Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur. 1981. The Catla fish is bred and cultivated mainly for food. Saraceni C. and  Ruggiu D., Techniques for sampling water and phytoplankton, In: Vollenweider R. A. 578. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Open Access Policy The water quality parameters observed were recorded during the experiment (Table 1, Figure 2), The average initial length, final length and length gain (%),average initial weight, final weight and weight gain, average specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of Catla catla spawn stocked at four different densities, i.e. Long-distance transport of these ice-packed fish in insulated vans is a common practice in countries like India, where catla are even transported over 3000 km by road to fish-deficit regions. The results of the study indicated that the maximum average length gain was (357.89±3.08%), weight gain (779.53±18.03%), specific growth rate (5.56±0.08%) and survival (45.20±0.13%) and were recorded significantly (P<0.05) at stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 as compared to the other stocking densities. (ed) A manual of methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1969). Application of the principles of Article 9 of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries would be appropriate. 1995. Significantly the observation was that the survival of fry was found to be decreased with increasing stocking density. Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.N. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, India. 727 pp. Whereas T4 showed the minimum average length gain of 240.68±4.68%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. Miao S., Growth and survival model of red tail shrimp. [Draft report]. Greyish on back and flanks, silvery-white below; fins dusky. Furthermore, when sold live, the market value increases over two-fold compared to iced fish. Ratnagiri District report on agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Government of Maharashtra, (2009). The rain water falling on the roof of hatchery building was collected in cement tank through (U shaped) roof gutters attached to the edges of building roof (Figure 1). In the three-species system in India the proportion of catla stocked is usually kept at 30-35 percent, while in six-species culture it forms 15-20 percent. In the six-species composite system with rohu, mrigal, common carp, grass carp and silver carp, catla shares the upper feeding niche of the pond with silver carp. Synopsis of Biological Data on Rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822). The marketing of this species mostly relies on domestic markets, where it is sold fresh. The level of adoption of these practices varies from country to country, depending mainly on the resource availability and the economic status of the farmers. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries. Road Thane, West Mumbai, Thane West, Thane - 400607, Dist. Three-day old larvae, measuring about 6 mm, are reared for 15-20 days in small earthen nursery ponds of 0.02-0.1 ha, during which they reach 20-25 mm. The experiment was conducted up to 16 days for the spawn to attain the fry stage. Carps. Ammonia; Toxicity; Catla catla; Labeo bata; Cyprinus carpio; Oreochromis mossambica. Ltd., New Delhi, India. In experiment, the five days old healthy spawn of Catla catla having average length 5.50±0.04 mm and average weight of 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at four different stocking densities viz. Similar observations were also found in glass aquaria15 and in outdoor concrete tank.12 However, the variation in the growth and survival between all the above mentioned studies and present study may be due to the variation in stocking density, feed composition and feed type in culture system. In extensive systems, with a targeted production level of 2-3 tonnes/ha, the cost of production is about USD 0.30/kg, while the costs increase to USD 0.5-0.6/kg in semi-intensive culture, where the targeted production is 4-8 tonnes/ha. Sampling was carried out at an interval of seven days to observe the growth of fishes. Several factors have enhanced the status of the farming of the Indian major carps: Carps are generally cultured in a closed system that involves herbivorous species, in which organic materials are used as the principal input sources, thereby making it a generally environmental-friendly practice. The maximum survival of (45.20±0.1250%) was found at low stocking density of 6 spawn l-1. In certain areas, brick-lined or cement tanks are also used as nurseries. Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255, Freshwater fish culture a promising enterprise was gradually realized, non-availability of quality of fish seed and lack of scientific culture constrains the development of carp farming.1 Presently, freshwater fish culture is gaining importance in the state of Maharashtra in India.2 It has been observed farmers the state are taking keen interest to practice freshwater aquaculture. 2004. Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, M.S., India, Pin-415629. Data obtained from the experiment for growth parameters and survival was analyzed by one way ANOVA. While carp pituitary extract has been the common inducing agent used since the development of the induced breeding technology, several synthetic commercial formulations of purified salmon gonadotropin and dopamine antagonist such as Ovaprim, Ovatide and Wova-FH have also been successfully used in recent years. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. The growth of spawn to fry was observed to decrease with increase in the stocking density. They generally reach maturity at their 3-5 years of age. In the Koleru lake area of Andhra Pradesh, the centre of commercial carp farming activity in India with a production water area of over 100 000 ha, the grow-out period extends up to 18 months. Water samples for phytoplankton (600 ml) were collected from three different points in the cement tank and fixed with Lugol’s solution 10 identified and counted using a hemocytometer under a microscope after overnight concentration to 0.2-0.4 ml.11 Zooplankton samples were collected using plankton net No.25 (67 µm mesh) from bottom to surface. A comparative study of growth rate of rohu - mrigal and mrigal - rohu hybrids and their parental species. Uses. During the experiment pH increased from acidic to alkaline in harvested rain water and faster growth of Catla catla spawn to fry was observed. Statistical analysis of data showed that age of 150 days for Catla catla,Labeo rohitaandCirrhina mrigala. Effect of live feed on the survival and growth of fry of Catla catla using three different live feeds namely, Cyclopoid (Thermocyclops decipiens), Cladoceran (Moina micrura), and mixed diet (Cyclopoid and Cladoceran) were studied. 1999. Incorporation of soybean oil (2.7 percent) and fish oil (0.3 percent) in the diet of brood female catla (3.0 – 5.5 kg) for a period of 93 days results in improved reproductive performance such as advanced maturation, increased fecundity and significantly higher fertilization rates of eggs (Nandi et al., 2001). Treatment: Drown the fish into picric acid solution@0.003% for 1 hour. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K., Chandra, S., Muduli, H.K. It is the fastest growing species among the three Indian major carps. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment.In: Bangladesh Study Report. Legendre H, Saurin H., Adou C., Suitable of Brackish water tilapia species from the Ivore coast for lagoon aquaculture. Samuel M.P., Satapathy K.K., Concerted rainwater harvesting technologies suitable for hilly agro-ecosystems of Northeast India, Current Science, 95:1130-1132 (2008). In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Pandey P.K., Panda S.N., Panigrahi B., Sizing on-farm reservoir for crop-    fish integration in rain fed farming systems in Eastern India. Pakistan Study Report. The Catla catla, The dissolved oxygen was found to decrease over the culture period in all the densities. Submission Flow catla fish benefits, catla fish growth period, catla fish in hindi, catla fish price, catla fish eggs, catla fish farming profit, catla catla characters, big catla fish, big catla fish catching, Standardized practice for grow-out in the carp polyculture system includes control of predatory and weed fish through the application of chemicals or plant derivatives; the stocking of fingerlings at a combined density of 4 000-10 000 fingerlings/ha; pond fertilization with organic manures such as cattle dung or poultry droppings and inorganic fertilizers; supplementary feeding with a mixture of rice/wheat bran and oil cake; and fish health monitoring and water management. The maximum average weight gain of 779.53±18.03% was observed in T1. The live mixed two group of phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were dominant, while four group of zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera (moina and daphnia), Copepoda and Protozoa also dominated in the green water system. ), Proceedings of the workshop on carp seed production technology, pp. In many cases, however, farmers stock multiple carp species due to the non-availability of sufficient ponds for separate stocking. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. However, increased emphasis on intensification for enhancing production in recent years has resulted in increased use of chemical fertilizers, feeds, therapeutics, drugs, chemicals, etc., which pose some concern. fingerlings reared in crowded conditions for over one year, and 150-300 g in size) are used as the stocking material and the average size of catla harvested is 1.5-2.0 kg. II growth and rearing method. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Because catla fish is one of the very popular freshwater fish species which is raised throughout India, Bangladesh and some other South Asian countries.. It is therefore necessary that the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the judicious use of these critical inputs. Zooplankton samples were preserved first in procaine and then in 4% formalin before identification. April to July is the best period for laying of eggs. Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, and migration. • Black spot disease: Small spots of black color are seen on the body. Body bilaterally symmetrical, moderately elongate, its dorsal profile more arched than the ventral profile; body with cycloid scales, head without scale; snout fairly depressed, projecting beyond mouth, without lateral lobe; eyes dorsolateral in position, not visible from outside of head; mouth small and inferior; lips … In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. whereas T4 showed the average weight gain of 512.70±20.87%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. & Jhingran, A.G. 1991. Scilit However, the tendency of farmers to increase income per unit area has led to an excessive use of fertilizers, proteinaceous feeds and chemicals that may have detrimental effects on the environment. Pillay T.V.R., Kutty M.N., Aquaculture Principles and Practices, 4. Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. The present study was conducted at Wada Mirya finfish and shellfish hatchery of Marine Biological Research Station, at Latitude 17o.00’.57”.2 4N and Longitude 73o.16’.50”.4 7E, (Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. A first report on quadruple spawning of Catla catla (Ham.). Gopakumar, K., Ayyappan, S., Jena, J.K., Sahoo, S.K., Sarkar, S.K., Satapathy, B.B. The production levels recorded in carp polyculture systems usually remain at 3-5 tonnes/ha/yr, with catla contributing about 20-30 percent of the biomass. The female Rohu lays 3 lakh eggs approximately. The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of manganese for 30 days. Being a low input-based system, carp culture has not generally been perceived as a threat to the environment. Mixed plankton culture was maintained by adding inoculum obtained from Bhairi Temple Lake, nearby to the experimental station, to the harvested rain water. As the species breeds in the riverine ecosystem, its ready seed availability has helped in establishing its aquaculture in the peripheral region of the riverine system in these countries. Asian Fishery Society Indian Branch, Mangalore, India. & Nayak, P.K. The low dissolved oxygen results in water quality changes play an important role in affecting growth and survival of fish.18. In addition to live food, slurry of  GNOC and RB in the ratio of 1:1 at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first 0-14 days.9 GNOC and RB slurry were fed twice in a day during morning and evening. Mahuva oil cake 2500 kilograms per one hectare is used to kill the fish. The compatibility of catla in polyculture systems with other carps has already been established. In large commercial farms where the harvest is considerable, fish, after washing thoroughly in water, are packed with crushed ice at 1:1 ratio in rectangular plastic crates (usually 60 cm x 40 cm x 23 cm in size). Fish were fed to apparent satiation (about 10% body weight), 6 d/wk, twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for 6 wk. Supplementary feed constitutes over 50 percent of the total input cost in carp polyculture; therefore, judicious feed management is of prime importance for enhancing profits. Improvements in feeding and health management. The outdoor rectangular cement tanks having dimensions of 5 m×1.5 m×1.5 m (two tanks) and two small size tanks having dimension 2m×1m×1m were used for development of green water system separately. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 13:251-282. Moderate-sized fish of 1-2 kg are preferred because the taste declines as they get larger, due to their coarse texture. The similar result was found with 23-30 oC.16 The pH of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 7.4 to 7.8, in all the treatments. & Varghese, T.J. 1980. Webber H., Riordan P.E., Criteria for candidate species for Aquaculture, Aquaculture 7:107-123 (1976). During the exposure period, all three fish species showed negative growth with weight increment values of -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively. used (Basu, 1999) [1] to analyze length growth data of Catla catla (Ham.) Green water system, in which green algae consisting of planktons are allowed to grow and make available natural microscopic food to the fish larvae.6 Green water tank culture of tilapia is an appropriate method for producing commercial level of tilapia, as phytoplankton and other small microscopic organism available within the water column are grazed on by tilapia and it helps to recycling waste nutrients and lowering feed conversion ratios.7 Green water system provides plankton feeds to fish, shrimp and shellfish in the world’s most widespread and sustainable aquaculture approach.8. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. Biosystems Engineering 93:475-489 (2006). Consumers generally prefer catla to be large 1-2 kg. Basavaraju, Y. Breeding in Catla Fish Farming:-Generally, catla fish comes to maturity level at the age of 3 to 4 years. In the present study growth and survival were reduced by increasing stocking density. The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone and large reservoirs area are available for culture based capture fish production. The daily average calcium hardness and magnesium hardness ranged between values of 14-14.9 and 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 respectively. Type the above text in box below (Case sensitive), Article Processing Charges Applied Ichthyololy, 20:123-127 (2004). INTRODUCTION In general, growth of a fish is Genus: Catla Species: Catla Catla fish is the one of the popular fresh water fishes grown throughout india and identified as a indian carp. Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India. Ramakrishna, R., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R.2013. Normally, the grow-out period is one year, during which it grows to about 1.0 kg. They were slowly released into cement tanks, half filled with bore water and seasoned over night. Keywords. The species has also been introduced elsewhere, including Sri Lanka, Israel, Japan, and Mauritius. The commercial farming of catla fish is very high due to its fast growth and market demand. The slurry comprising of ground nut oil cake (GNOC) and rice bran (RB) (1:1) at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first three days before the stocking of fish seed to grow and multiply natural live feed.9 Aeration pipes were arranged in the culture tank to keep the culture afloat, in outdoor cultures. National Freshwater Aquaculture Development Plan.CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India, 75 pp. However, the major constraint is on the supply and access to quality freshwater fish seed.3 The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone, the pre-monsoon showers (March-May) accounts for 25% of annual rainfall, while bulk of the rainfall (67%) occurs during June-September, which constitutes the monsoon season 3-4 months.4. Catla and rohu fetch similar market prices, which are usually 10-20 percent higher than those for mrigal. 1991. Hayat, M. 1995. The bolting silk of 40 um mesh size bag were fitted to PVC pipe to filter the harvested rain water. Marketable sized fish are usually harvested through repeated netting. Jhingran, V.G. The fork and total length increments were also negative for Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala. Water quality parameters viz., temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) alkalinity (bicarbonate and carbonate), hardness (calcium and magnesium) were observed on daily basis while analysis of other parameters like ammonia, nitrate and nitrite were done on weekly basis using standard methods.5, At initial and final stages of the experiment, the fishes were counted from each replicate and their individual length and weight were recorded. The green water system containing live phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Protozoa were was used. 49-52. doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.5.1.08, Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. The present study on the effect of green water system with harvested rain water on growth performance of freshwater fish Catla catla. In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. To meet diverse requirements of our clients in the best possible manner, we are offering a comprehensive Catla Fish at very reasonable price. & Tripathi, S.D. Taxonomy [ edit ] The catla was formerly listed as the only species in the genus Catla , … This poor breeding response, coupled with a relatively shorter spawning season, results in an inadequate production of hatchery-reared seed, which often fails to cover the entire needs of the farmers in several regions. Gupta, S.D., Rath, S.C., Dasgupta, S.D. Handbook of Zoological Survey of India, Volume 2. 1Faculty of Fishery Science, (Dr. B.S. 2001. When pituitary extract is used, females are injected with a stimulating dose of 2-3 mg/kg BW followed by a second dose of 5 to 8 mg/kg after a lapse of 6 hours; males are given a single dose of 2-3 mg/kg at the time of second injection of the female. Development of processing and value-added products. Similar observations were recorded related to growth Oreochromis niloticus fry by using cages in open pond water system,16 Ctenopharygodon idella15 by using reservoir water in aquaria. An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance of Catla catla fingerlings during 90-day sub-lethal copper (Cu) exposure. The daily average carbonate alkalinity and bicarbonate alkalinity (mg l-1 as CaCO3) ranged between values of 16.15-16.91 and 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3 during experimental period. 1998b. B. P. Bhoye1, B. R. Chavan1*, V. R. Sadavarte1, H. B. Dhamagaye1 , M. T. Kamble2, B. T. Sawant1. On an average, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 million eggs. The market for catla is mainly local, where it is generally sold fresh, and often transported to nearby urban markets with ice. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger. Khoke, U.C. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Swain et al (1999) [13] studied the growth and survival of catla spawn in various stocking densities fed on a dry artificial diet. The overall survival in these fingerling rearing systems ranges from 60 to 70 percent. Catla is a eurythermal species that grows best at water temperatures between 25-32 °C. The collection of riverine seed was the only source for culture until the 1950s. The non-availability of commercial feed, forcing the farmers to resort to the conventional bran-oilcake mixture, is another limiting factor for the growth and survival of fry. In waterbodies where multiple stocking and multiple harvesting are practised, the harvesting of larger sized fish (over 500 g) is usually initiated after 6-7 months of culture, while the smaller ones are returned to the pond for further growth. Fish fry appeared healthy at the end of experimental trials with survival ranging from 26.50±0.07to 45.20±0.13%, which are significantly different among all the treatments of fish while there were a number of mortalities unrelated to diet. 1968. The optimum ranges of physico-chemical parameters of water for tropical fishes such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity and total hardness were stated as 24-28oC, 7.5-7.8, 6.0-8.0 ppm, <5, 75-120 ppm as CaCO3 and 60-1000 ppm as CaCO3 respectively.19. Rohu do not grow as rapidly as catla or the Chinese major carp, attaining around 500–1000 g in the first year under good farm conditions. The survival level of catla in nursery ponds is normally lower than that for rohu and mrigal. 1995. 1995. Grow-out production of carps in India. Huang W.B and Chiu T.S., Effect of stocking density on survival, growth,  size variation, and production of Tilapia fry, Aquaculture Research, 28:165-173 (1997). Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks, Early Breeding and Seed Production of Indian Major Carps: Attributes of the Innovation from an Adaptive Trial, Effect of Different Varieties and Planting Time on Kharif Onion Production in Lower Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh, Publication ethics and malpractice statement, Correction, Retraction, Withdrawal policies, http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255, Evaluation of Traditional and Modernized Pest Control Methods Used by Smallholder Farmers in Malawi, Exogenous Probiotics on Biofloc based Aquaculture: A Review, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Success in the induced breeding of the species in 1957 assured subsequent seed supply, thus revolutionising this form of polyculture in India and other south-east Asian countries. ), Sustainable Indian Fisheries, pp. Condition factor of control fish reveals that weight gain was maximum in relation to length of fish as compared to fish kept under … The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. Thus, farmers often resort to harvesting this species only at the end of the culture period instead of during intermittent harvesting. 541 pp. The minimum tolerance temperature limit is ~14 °C. Body short and deep, somewhat laterally compressed, its depth more than head length; head very large, its depth exceeding half the head length; body with conspicuously large cycloid scales, head devoid of scales; snout bluntly rounded; eyes large and visible from underside of the head; mouth wide and upturned with prominent protruding lower jaw; upper lip absent, lower lip very thick; no barbels; lower jaw with a movable articulation at symphysis, without a prominent process; gill rakers long and fine; pharyngeal teeth in three row, 5.3.2/2.3.5 pattern; dorsal fin inserted slightly in advance of pelvic fins, with 14 to 16 branched rays, the simple rays non-osseous; anal fin short; pectoral fins long extending to pelvic fins; caudal fin forked; lateral line with 40 to 43 scales.
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