Biotypes with glyphosate resistance are becoming more common (Ward et al., 2013). The PRE herbicide application of combinations such as S-metolachlor + flumioxazin or flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, followed by fomesafen is also recommended. A. palmeri is reported as being dispersed in seed mixes used for habitat restoration. carelessweed. Pest Management Science, 73(11), 2221-2224. doi: 10.1002/ps.4632, Norsworthy, J. K., Griffith, G. M., Scott, R. C., Smith, K. L., Oliver, L. R., 2008. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Weed Technology, 29(3), 405-411. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-14-00146.1, Davis, A. S., Schutte, B. J., Hager, A. G., Young, B. G., 2015. by Schmutz EM, Freeman BN, Reed RE]. It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia. 17 pp. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 15(4), 595-606. Various countries are making available early warning documentation to educate the general public about the implications of an invasion of A. palmeri. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species. Although the seeds have no wind dispersal adaptations, strong winds and hurricanes are reported as dispersing the species over some areas of Texas (Menges, 1987). Stems erect, branched, usually (0.3-)0.5-1.5(-3) m; proximal branches often ascending. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson Steve Hurst - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Not copyrighted image Foto visualizzata 324 volte. More information is also needed on the effects of A. palmeri in natural habitats. It is considered the most invasive species of the dioecious amaranths and is ranked as one of the most troublesome weeds of various crops in the United States. Major crop producing countries with climates suitable for the establishment of A. palmeri are Australia, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Tanzania. 2017. Staminate flowers: tepals 5, unequal, 2-4 mm, apex acute; inner tepals with prominent midrib excurrent as rigid spine, apex long-acuminate or mucronulate; stamens 5. In: Encyclopedia of Life . Journal of Coastal Conservation. Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Amaranthus palmeri in Kew Science Plants of the World online. Prev Next Pause Resume. De Andrade Jr, ER , Cavenaghi, AL, Guimarães, SC, 2015. The impact of herbicide-resistant weeds on Kansas agriculture. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 96, 304-309. Palmer amaranth. Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AK, USA. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as causing allergies (PFAF, 2019). Unlike the grain and leaf amaranths of other regions, it has not been cultivated or further improved by recent agricultural breeding. Palmer's amaranth is native to the southwest U.S. and Mexico, but it has aggressively expanded its range, becoming invasive in many parts of the world. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Its arrival in South America by the first part of the 2000s is also related to crop production (De Andrade et al., 2015). Plants For A Future Database. Palynology, 36(2), 153. doi: 10.1080/01916122.2012.662178. Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, M?xico, Michoac?n, Morelos, Nuevo Le?n, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quer?taro, San Luis Potos?, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas, Native to the southwest of USA from California to Texas and introduced elsewhere. Using Amaranthus palmeri pollen to mark captured tarnished plant bugs. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Fruits/pods/Growing point/Leaves/Seedlings/Seeds/Stems, Seeds accidentally dispersed by agricultural practices, Seeds consumed by small mammals and birds, Often found in agricultural plots and disturbed sites, Seed dispersion by strong winds and hurricanes reported, Accidentally dispersed by seed mixes used for habitat restoration, Moved unintentionally with crop products, machinery, clothing, Moved via water and channels used for irrigation, Leaves used as a vegetable and meal made from ground seed, Transported accidentally with crop products. Culpepper AS, Whitaker JR, MacRae AW, York AC (2008) Distribution of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Georgia and North Carolina during 2005–2006. The following description is from Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019) and World Flora Online (2019): Dioecious plants, glabrous or nearly so. Its success is attributed to a combination of high fecundity, fast and season-long germination, fast initial growth, high rates of photosynthesis, phenotypic plasticity, the vast amount of seeds produced per plant (up to 600,000), the ability to produce a large biomass and the development of herbicide resistance, including to the widely used glyphosate. Its range is also predicted to expand as a result of climate change (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). Contextual translation of "amaranthus tricolor" into Tamil. EPPO Global database. The government of Uruguay has also created a video with information about the species and a means to report its presence via the internet (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, 2019). A. palmeri also interferes with the mechanical harvest of crops (Norsworthy et al., 2008). In the absence of competition, seed production for A. palmeri is over 600,000 seeds per female plant (Keeley, Carter, & Thullen, 1987). 2013;11(3):206-12. Desc: Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus.It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. It has also been introduced to Europe, Australia, and other areas. Schmutz EM, Freeman BN, Reed RE, 1974. III. palmeri. Weed Technology, 27(1), 85-91. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-11-00144.1, Morgan, G. D., Baumann, P. A., Chandler, J. M., 2001. EPPO, 2020. Wats.) 2017. 3 (1), 170044. Govaerts, R. et al. https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf, Crow, W. D., Steckel, L. E., Hayes, R. M., Mueller, T. C., 2015. A quantitative assay for Amaranthus palmeri identification. It has several common names, including carelessweed,[1] dioecious amaranth,[2] Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. Competitive impact of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) development and yield. Weed Science, 61(2), 259-266. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-12-00063.1, Cornell University, 2019. [ 38 ] Climate change models predict future increases in temperatures can expand the range of the species northward into portions of Canada and Europe (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). There are no reports of any economic uses for A. palmeri. Species belonging to the genus Amaranthus have been cultivated for their grains for 8,000 years. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. Various rodents and birds, including Charadrius vociferus and ducks, consume the seeds (Ward et al., 2013). However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Populations in the eastern United States are … Acad. A new herbicide-resistant strain of Amaranthus palmeri has appeared; it is glyphosate-resistant and so cannot be killed by herbicides using the chemical. Seeds need a shallow disposition in the soil to germinate, which can occur within one to two days (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). Native to the Sonoran Desert and the lower Rio Grande Valley (Ehleringer, 1983; Keely, 1987), Palmer amaranth readily invades croplands in hot climates. Weed Science, 49(2), 202-208. doi: 10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0202:IOPAIC]2.0.CO;2. Inflorescences terminal, linear spikes to panicles, usually drooping, occasionally erect, especially when young, with few axillary clusters, uninterrupted or interrupted in proximal part of plant. http://www.tropicos.org/, Murphy B P, Plewa D E, Phillippi E, Bissonnette S M, Tranel P J, 2017. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Amaranto di Palmer) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Reference: Costea et al. : here to stay. 632-635. The implementation of Zero Tolerance areas is recommended for the total eradication of A. palmeri (Barber et al., 2015; Crow et al., 2015; CropLife, 2019; EPPO, 2019). Although the native habitat of A. palmeri is arid desert areas of the southwest USA and the north of Mexico, it is spreading fast into higher latitudes and milder climates. A quantitative assay for Amaranthus palmeri identification. A., Jan, S., & Rashid, I. A Northern Arizona homeowner's guide to identifying and managing invasive plants. Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri S. The seeds are accidentally dispersed mainly though agriculture and the crop trade. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. The EccDNA Replicon: A Heritable, Extranuclear Vehicle That Enables Gene Amplification and Glyphosate Resistance in Amaranthus palmeri. Dispersal of aquatic organisms: viability of seeds recovered from the droppings of captive killdeer and mallard ducks. Published on the internet. In addition, the seed is spread by traditional means, such as harvesting, inadequate cleaning of equipment, and the spreading of infested materials, such as manure. Temperature effects on germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis). Before the start of the next season, a pre-emergence herbicide should be applied to plots and adjacent fields (CropLife, 2019). According to Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012), A. palmeri is native to North America and the West Indies (Cuba and Hispaniola). Improved sanitary measures need to be implemented, including cleaning machinery to prevent seed dispersal between fields. Glufosinate is also used in soybean fields. Amaranthus, noti collettivamente come amaranto, è un cosmopolita, genere di annuali o di breve durata piante perenni.Alcune specie di amaranto sono coltivate come ortaggi a foglia, pseudocereali, e piante ornamentali.La maggior parte delle Amaranthus specie sono infestanti annuali estivi e sono comunemente indicati come amaranto. No specific environmental services are reported for A. palmeri, other than seeds being consumed by animals and being used as forage (Burrows and Tyrl, 2013; Ward et al., 2013). Amaranth, in general, is a good wild food. Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, … Considering that A. palmeri is originally from arid and desert habitats, its wide distribution is indicative of the phenotypic plasticity of the species (Ward et al., 2013). CropLife, 2019. The genus Amaranth is listed in the Cornell University list of plants poisonous to livestock with nitrate listed as the primary poison (Cornell University, 2019). Amaranthus palmeri in Kew Science Plants of the World online. Seeds germinate best under natural light (Ward et al., 2013). Amaranthus palmeri is native to to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranth) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a native North American weed also known as careless weed, is recognized as one of the most troublesome weed species in the southern and southwestern United States (Webster, 2001).Palmer amaranth is a short-lived, summer annual plant that readily invades croplands (Steyermark, 1963). Snodgrass, G. L., Scott, W. P., Smith, J. W., 1984. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium , Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.http://alienplantsbelgium.be/. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán,  University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Central and local government agencies and institutions have published several reports to create awareness about the problems that A. palmeri presents to agriculture. 682 likes. Cereal trade, Seen for the first time in Lleida, Cataluna at the margin of a maize field. The leaves, stems and seeds of Palmer amaranth, like those of other amaranths, are edible and highly nutritious. Cereal trade, Although means of introduction is unknown it is reported from agricultural fields, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. The spine-tipped flower bracts are prickly (especially when dry) and can scratch bare skin. Since the initial report of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson in 2006, resistant populations have been reported in 28 states. (Video informativo sobre el Amaranthus palmeri). Rhodora, 78(813), 37-52. Amaranthus palmeri is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Deep tillage in autumn followed by a cover crop is also recommended as germination and seedling establishment of A. palmeri is significantly reduced when the seeds are buried at depths of 5 cm or more in the soil (EPPO, 2019). > 0°C, wet all year, Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. USDA Nutrient Database", "Cereals, whole wheat hot natural cereal, cooked with water, without salt. Anastasiu P, Negrean G, Samoilǎ C, Memedemin D, Cogǎlniceanu D, 2011. Weed Science, 35(3), 328-332. A passage from Wild Edible Plants of New Mexico: After Amaranth has gone to seed (late summer–fall), strip the dried seed spikes from the top of each plant. Our page is about Health Benefits of Amaranth, Kikuyu: Terere Kisii/ Luhyia: Libokoi; Luo: Ododo; Swahili: Mchicha. Amaranthus palmeri in Flora of North America . Euro+Med, 2019. … Amaranthus Palmeri - Princely House, Moi Avenue (Next to Mt. About 90% of the seeds will germinate during the next year and 10% over a four-year period (Barber et al., 2015). https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. Steckel LE, 2007. Weed Technology, 27(1), 12-27. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-12-00113.1, Webster, T. M., Grey, T. L., 2015. It slowly infiltrated the southeast United States and has become one of the most significant weed pests of cotton and soybean producers. Season and sowing. 6, 7 Amaranthus palmeri was first discovered in Fanzhuangzi Village, Fengtai District, Beijing, China, in 1985 and … World Flora Online. "Biology of amaranths". Growers of crops have not been able to provide adequate moisture to offset prolonged temperatures above 85 °F (29 °C) with a 112 °F (44 °C) heat index. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herbaceous plant that is spreading rapidly beyond its native range in North America. CABI is a registered EU trademark. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. A. palmeri has high genetic diversity and is capable of developing herbicide resistance over a period of a few years (Chandi et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013). EPPO, 2020. A comparative analysis of alien plant species along the Romanian Black Sea coastal area. Amaranthus palmeri, native to the southwestern desert region of the United States, is a C 4, summer annual plant, and is among the top five most troublesome weeds in most other southeastern states. The cleaning of vehicles and machinery before entering the plots is also recommended; setting up appropriate planting dates for crops and carefully hand weeding the existing A. palmeri plants is also suggested (EPPO, 2019). De Vlaming, V., Proctor, V. W., 1968. This species can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (Ribeiro et al., 2014). Report FSA2177-PD-3-2015N. Pest Management Science. Kistner, E. J., Hatfield, J. L., 2018. It occupies the middle ground between excellent and poor. After harvest, agricultural plots should be inspected for the presence ofA. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Amaranthus palmeri antigen. Amaranthus palmeri, a second record for Africa and notes on A. sonoriensis nom. Saunders RM, Becker R, 1984. Effects of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Establishment Time and Distance from the Crop Row on Biological and Phenological Characteristics of the Weed: Implications on Soybean Yield - Volume 67 Issue 1 - Nicholas E. Korres, Jason K. Norsworthy, Andy Mauromoustakos It has become one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds in the southeastern U.S. A. palmeri is an erect, branching, summer annual that usually grows from 6-8 ft (1.8-2.4 m) tall. Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth, spiny pigweed, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth, is a plant is native to the tropical Americas, but is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. [11], In 2014, the Texas Department of Agriculture asked the United States Environmental Protection Agency for permission to use the restricted chemical propazine on 3 million acres (1.2 million hectares) of cotton threatened by Palmer amaranth. It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed.It is native to most of the southern half of North America. Tropicos database. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as one of the most competitive weeds of crops in the United States (Morgan et al., 2001; Norsworthy et al., 2008; Webster and Gray, 2015). A. palmeri is an annual species with a high reproductive potential. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase inhibitors. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Previously, Palmer amaranth in Kansas has developed resistance to ALS, atrazine, glyphosate and HPPD herbicides—mesotrione, Huskie, Laudis, Impact, and Armezon—leaving growers with very few postemergence options to manage this weed. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. frequently cultivated as ornamentals, occasionally escaping from cultivation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51(343), 275-286. doi: 10.1093/jexbot/51.343.275, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019. The species is also reported as being dispersed through seed mixes used for habitat restoration (Murphy et al., 2017). glomeratus Uline & W.L.Bray, Highly adaptable to different environments, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Negatively impacts trade/international relations, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. Wheeler Jr AG, 1988. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.xiii+626 pp. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Previously recorded at the port of Sevilla and in Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) in the vicinity of industrial premises where seeds and plant products are processed, La Vega. This species was reported Vegetative stages should be removed completely before the plants set seed (CropLife, 2019). In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx. It is native to most of the southern half of North America. Some cultural and sanitary measures recommended for the eradication of A. palmeri include: crop rotations, alternating herbicide usage; reducing the space between the planted crops and using crop varieties with a high reproductive rate. is one of the most difficult weeds to control in soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Seed production via apomixis has been reported by Ribeiro et al. The base temperature for germination is 17°C, although germination can occur at 5-35°C (Steinmaus et al., 2000). Integrating cover crops and POST herbicides for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in corn. A. palmeri has spread worldwide from its native range since the early 20th century, mainly through accidental seed dispersal related to agricultural activities (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). Weed Science, 63(1), 264-272. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-14-00051.1. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri … 2001 Sida 19:931--974, 975--992; Sauer 1967 Ann Missouri Bot Gard … It is also reported to occur in orchards of citrus species, pecan (Carya illinoinensis), mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and apple (Malus domestica) (Mohseni-Moghadam et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013). It is also considered an opportunistic species as seed will germinate within a day in response to intermittent rainfall, with the seedlings having a fast growth rate (Berger et al., 2015). Paris, France: EPPO. [12] The request was denied due to unacceptable risks to drinking water. The landowner worked with a North Dakota State … Ethnobiology Letters, 9(2), 14-227. Light availability affects germination as plants growing in the shade produce seeds with a lower germination success than plants growing in full sun (Ward et al., 2013). [3] Other related Amaranthus species have been grown as crops for their greens and seeds for thousands of years in Mexico, South America, the Caribbean, Africa, India, and China. 15 (4), 595-606. Seeds in soil, manure and waste associated with agricultural practices, Seeds used for cattle due to high protein content, Strong winds and hurricane dispersal of the seeds, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Amaranthus palmeri var. Govaerts, R. et al. A comparative analysis of alien plant species along the Romanian Black Sea coastal area. Other means of spread reported for the species are through water flow, including irrigation, via animals, strong winds and hurricanes (Menges,1987). [10] The male produces the pollen and the female plant produces the seed. 2019. It is also reported in rural areas, streambanks, disturbed areas, abandoned plots, drainage and irrigation channels, roadsides, railroads, areas used for livestock, public gardens and cultivated fields (Ward et al., 2013; Iamonico and Mokni, 2017; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). doi: 10.4102/abc.v47i1.2100, Jha, P., Norsworthy, J. K., Riley, M. B., Bielenberg, D. G., Bridges, W., Jr., 2008. The dioecious Amaranthus spp. Circular Técnica, Rondonópolis, Brazil: Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão (IMAmt). Recent migration and evolution of the dioecious amaranths. Fayettville, Arkansas, USA: University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service.https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, Berger, S. T., Ferrell, J. Reveal, J. L., Spellenberg, R., 1976. Sauer J, 1957. Sowing can be done throughout the year. About 75-85% of the seeds produced each year are lost either to predation or over low temperatures during the winter. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. Introduction. A. palmeri is believed to have arrived in Europe as a contaminant of grains and oil seed rape by the 1950s (EPPO, 2019; Alien plants of Belgium, 2019). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Rinsing the insects three times with 95% ethyl alcohol prior to acetolysis removed 99% of the external pollen. In Oklahoma this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2018 and infests Soybean. Like spinach and many other leafy greens, amaranth leaves also contain oxalic acid, which can be harmful to individuals with kidney problems if consumed in excess. Weed Technology, 24(4), 495-503. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-09-00057.1, Ministerio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, 2019. For example, for cotton fields, residual herbicides such as linuron, diuron or flumioxazin activated through precipitation or irrigation are used. 73 (11), 2221-2224. DOI:10.2134/ael2017.12.0044, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. The public is advised to monitor their properties, to report the presence of the species and to immediately put in place proposed measures to eliminate the species (Ward et al., 2013; Barber et al., 2015; De Andrade et al., 2015). (2017). Weed Science, 51(6), 869-875. doi: 10.1614/P2002-127, Iamonico, D., El-Mokni, R., 2017. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy … Amaranth is an ancient grain that is loaded with healthy nutrients. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Plant Cell. Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Ward, S. M., Webster, T. M., Steckel, L. E., 2013. It can grow from 2 to 5 inches (51 to 127 mm) in three days, or less. DOI:10.4102/abc.v47i1.2100, Kistner E J, Hatfield J L, 2018. Amaranthus Palmeri, Nairobi, Kenya. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) competition for water in cotton. Amaranthus spinosus L. probably not naturalized, uncommon waif. Montevideo, Uruguay: https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019. A. palmeri leaves sometimes have a whitish v-shaped mark on the lamina. Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2019. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Maximum seed germination is at temperatures near 30°C, declining with higher temperatures (Guo and Al-Khatib, 2003; EPPO, 2019). Published on the internet. Weed Technology, 22(1), 108-113. doi: 10.1614/WT-07-128.1. It will outgrow cotton and is much more efficient. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2019. Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to … [5], Because of its toxicity to livestock,[4] and scarce familiarity in the United States with the uses of amaranths as food, Palmer amaranth is rarely consumed as of 2020, despite its ubiquity and resistance to drought. 47 (1), Art.#2100. In: Tropicos database. Various preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides are recommended for use on A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013; Cahoon et al., 2015; Wiggins et al., 2015). "[19], United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Herbicide resistance may change future of row crop farming in Southeast", "Waterhemp--Biology, Identification, and Management Considerations", "TDA seeking emergency approval for propazine", "EPA Denies Texas Emergency Weedkiller Request", "Palmer amaranth resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba confirmed in Kansas", "Resistance to PPO‐inhibiting herbicide in Palmer amaranth from Arkansas", "Resistant pigweed: the ultimate monkey wrench", "Palmer amaranth is a looming concern: This aggressive, herbicide resistance weed has been travelling north, and may be in our fields soon", "Palmer Amaranth – Weed of TWO Years – 2014-2015", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_palmeri&oldid=990139135, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 01:04. Manual control is recommended in the absence of herbicides, when the plants have not reached the reproductive stage and before using machinery. Accessed: … Adult TPB were allowed to feed on Amaranthus palmeri flowers for 72 hours, then sacrificed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 96 hours. Online Database. Evaluation of flumioxazin and S-metolachlor rate and timing for palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in sweetpotato. Nutritional properties of native plants and traditional foods from the central United States. Atlas of Living Australia. Centurion, South Africa: CropLife.17 pp. Weed Science, 47(3), 305-309. The female spikes of A. palmeri are taller and pricklier than A. tuberculatus, A. retroflexus and A. hybridus (Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019). Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Agricultural and Environmental Letters. [10] In 2001, Palmer amaranth was found in the southern quarter of Illinois and appeared to be moving to northern Illinois in 2006. Amaranthus cruentus L. (= Amaranthus paniculatus L.) Tracey Slotta - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Not copyrighted image Foto visualizzata 359 volte. For the control of emerged plants in cotton fields, glufosinate in combination with fluometuron is proposed. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Invasive weed mainly of agricultural lands, As a contaminant in Conservation Reserve Program seeding mixes, Sources differ as to whether it is present, In fields used to cultivate cotton, soybean and corn, Accidental introduction, from shipping (no details given). Full-season Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is frost tender. Toxic plants of North America, (Second Edition) . Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ, 2013. Weed Science, 63(3), 658-668. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-14-00177.1. 8 pp. It is a successful weedy species that has become a problem of crop fields and waste lands. To eradicate the species, a combination of various methods, including using herbicides, manual and mechanical removal, implementing sanitary procedures, using cover crops, tillage and applying crop rotations is proposed. , 2010a ). In the United States, A. palmeri has been ranked as one of the most troublesome weeds of various crops, especially cotton, maize and soybean (Ward et al., 2013). [17], Pollen is most commonly spread by wind. [13], In 2019, Kansas State University researchers documented a population of Palmer amaranth with resistance to 2,4-D and Dicamba in Kansas. It is important to avoid the use of machinery in areas where plants of A. palmeri are already producing seeds (EPPO, 2019). Zero tolerance: a community-based program for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth management. Wiggins, M. S., McClure, M. A., Hayes, R. M., Steckel, L. E., 2015. In many places, the plant has developed resistance since at least 2006 to glyphosate, a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide. Palmer amaranth. Abstract. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: Minnesota Department of Agriculture.https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/palmeramaranth, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. It is therefore advisable not to graze livestock in areas predominantly infested with A. palmeri. Control of large infestations of A. palmeri can be very costly to landowners. Klingaman, T. E., Oliver, L. R., 1994. Weed Technology, 28(1), 28-38. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-13-00090.1, Jones, G. D., Allen, K. C., 2012. Bracts: of pistillate flowers with long-excurrent midrib, 4-6 mm, longer than tepals, apex acuminate or mucronulate; of staminate flowers, 4 mm, equalling or longer than outer tepals, apex long-acuminate. Nematodes affecting A. palmeri include Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and Rotylenchulis reniformis (Ward et al., 2013). In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . Amaranthus palmeri is used by indigenous populations in the United States, including the Cocopa, Navajo, Pima, Yuma and Mohave (Steckel, 2007; Ward et al., 2013). The PLANTS Database. [6] In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2015 and infests Cotton. Tropicos database. Planta, 239(1), 199-212. doi: 10.1007/s00425-013-1972-3. The role of harbours. Crop yield reduction is reported for soybean up to 68% with A. palmeri density of 10 plants/m of row length ( Klingaman and Oliver, 1994 ), and for cotton of up to 92% at 0.9 plants/m 2 ( Rowland et al., 1999 ). Online Database. Steinau, A. N., Skinner, D. Z., Steinau, M., 2003. A. palmeri is an annual species (Ward et al., 2013). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Amaranthus tuberculatus, Amaranthus hybridus, and Amaranthus palmeri are agronomically important weed species. https://gd.eppo.int/. Small mammals, such as rodents, as well as birds are reported as seed dispersers of A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013). Meyers, S. L., Jennings, K. M., Schultheis, J. R., Monks, D. W., 2010. The petiole of A. palmeri is longer than the leaf. A. palmeri is a C4 summer annual species that grows best in open sunny places, warm temperatures and is drought tolerant (Ehleringer, 1983; Ward et al., 2013). This should be followed up for 4-5 years to be successful. Miscellaneous chromosome counts of western American plants. Palmer amaranth, also known as Palmer pigweed, is an extremely aggressive, fast-growing species that has become a serious weed problem in vegetable and row crops in the southern half of the United States in recent years. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as the host of several insects including Aufeius impressicollis, Taylorilygus pallidulus [Taylorilygus apicalis], Polymerus basalis and Lygus lineolaris (Snodgrass et al., 1984; Wheeler Jr, 1988; Jones and Allen, 2012; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). Seeds dark reddish brown to brown, 1-1.2 mm diam., shiny. Epub 2020 Apr 23. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed, GRIIS, 2019. The seeds retain a high percent of viability after being consumed by birds (De Vlaming and Proctor, 1968). Weed Technology, 29(4), 758-770. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-15-00041.1, Chandi, A., Jordan, D. L., York, A. C., Milla-Lewis, S. R., Burton, J. D., Culpepper, A. S., Whitaker, J. R., 2013. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual dioecious forb native to the area encompassing north‐western Mexico and the south‐western US (Ward, Webster, & Steckel, 2013). The main objective is to completely eliminate the species seedbank. In many places, the plant has developed resistance since at least 2006 to glyphosate, a … Encyclopedia of Life. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology, growth, and seed production in Georgia. In Tamil, “rajgira” is called “arai-k-keerai vidhai-அரைக்கீரை விதை”.. Sciencetific name: Amaranthus Tristis. Confirmation and control of triazine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Nebraska. seeds (Murphy et al., 2017). Amaranthus palmeri is similar to A. tuberculatus, A. retroflexus and A. hybridus, all native species of North America. The seeds have been reported to be viable after 12 years of burial in the soil, although more than half of the seeds will lose viability after 18 months (EPPO, 2019). The … Livestock-poisoning plants of Arizona, [ed. Amaranthus palmeri S.Watson is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae). Menges, R. M., 1987. Do not walk … It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson Amaranthus palmeri is reported as one of the most competitive weeds of crops in the United States (Morgan et al., 2001; Norsworthy et al., 2008; Webster and Gray, 2015). Ribeiro, D. N., Pan, Z. Q., Duke, S. O., Nandula, V. K., Baldwin, B. S., Shaw, D. R., Dayan, F. E., 2014. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. in North Carolina. Although native to areas with high temperatures and low precipitation, its phenotypic plasticity has allowed A. palmeri to spread into areas of lower temperatures and higher altitudes (Ward et al., 2013). For plots where the species is detected, all equipment and machinery should be treated as if contaminated and properly sanitized (CropLife, 2019). [6] As a result, the primary economic importance of Palmer amaranth to American farmers has been as a noxious weed and a competitor to more marketable crops, rather than as a crop in its own right. For sweet potato, crop yields have been reduced 36 to 81% at densities of 0.5 to 6.5 A. palmeri plants/m row (Meyers et al., 2010). A qPCR assay has been developed to detect the presence of this species in a mix of Amaranthus spp. EPPO Global database. Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweed. The chromosome number reported for A palmeri is n = 17 (Reveal and Spellenberg, 1976). Change ). Amaranthus Palmeri - Princely House, Moi Avenue (Next to Mt. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is an aggressive, invasive weed native to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. A. palmeri is reported as invasive in the USA, Argentina and Brazil, due to the negative impact it has on agriculture. 2017).Palmer amaranth was rated as the most troublesome weed by the Weed … In the absence of competition, seed production for A. palmeri is over 600,000 seeds per female plant (Keeley, Carter, & Thullen, 1987). View abstract. Pistillate flowers: tepals 1.7-3.8 mm, apex acuminate, mucronulate; style branches spreading; stigmas 2(-3). Flowering can occur throughout the year although most of it occurs during the summer months. Here is a detailed look at amaranth and its health benefits. More on that in a moment. For soybeans, fomesafen and lactofen are used for A, palmeri plants that are less than 8 cm tall. The genus name is derived from the combination of two Greek words "amarantos," meaning "unfading, undecaying" and “anthos” for “flower” or "never failing flowers", as a description of the Amaranthus species' showy bracts (Steckel, 2007). Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. Further, ABA content was significantly higher and GA content significantly lower in seeds from shaded (47% reduction in light) than in those from nonshaded (0% reduction in light) plants ( Jha et al. Links . Confirmation and control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Arkansas. First southeastern U.S. records of the western heteropterans Prionosoma podopioides (Pentatomidae) and Aufeius impressicollis (Rhopalidae), with a review of distribution and host plants. Functional PPO2 mutations: co‐occurrence in one plant or the same ppo2 allele of herbicide‐resistant Amaranthus palmeri in the US mid‐south Matheus M. Noguera. 2020 Jul;32(7):2132-2140. doi: 10.1105/tpc.20.00099. This species is dioecious, produces vast quantities of wind-carried pollen and has prolific seed production that surpasses 600,000 seeds per plant (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). It became a major agricultural weed in the southern Great Plains by the late 1990s (Horak, 1997), and now infests at least 750,000 acres of co… ), maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and various vegetables (Ward et al., 2013). At higher spatial scales, the implementation of coordinated screening efforts at multiple stages in the feed machinery transport chains is needed to detect contamination by seeds of A. palmeri (Davis et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). 1913. Season and sowing. The role of harbours. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Although some references cite the species as being present in Australia, this is probably a recording error as the only reference to A. palmeri there are three specimens from the United States deposited at the Northern Territory Herbarium (Atlas of Living Australia, 2019). Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor Resistance in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S.Wats.) Research has shown that these particular biotypes … Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed limited. Amaranthus palmeri is a very competitive weed found in fields of many crops, including cotton (Gossypium spp. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to arid and desert habitats of northern Mexico and the southwest of the USA (Ward et al., 2013). Seeds can also be fed to cattle (Kindscher et al., 2018) although the high levels of nitrates in the adult plant can be poisonous to livestock, especially cattle and pigs (Burrows and Tyrl, 2013). Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Department of Animal Science.http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/php/plants.php?action=display, CropLife, 2019. The plant is fast-growing and highly competitive. It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed.It is native to most of the southern half of North America. An illustrated flora of the northern … For example, in Georgia, USA, cotton growers have spent more than 110 million US dollars annually in the control of A. palmeri (Webster and Gray, 2015). Weeds of the midwestern United States and central Canada, Athens, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Press.468 pp. The implementation of scouting programmes to detect the presence of the species in agricultural land, including drainage systems, before fully reproductive is recommended. Establishing the geographical distribution and level of acetolactate synthase resistance of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions in Georgia. Three subgenera are recognised: Acnida, Amaranthus, and Albersia (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri): a review. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Seeds from Amaranthus palmeri plants grown under natural photoperiods at 47 and 0% shading (with neutral-density black shade cloth) germinated to 21 and 25%, respectively, at 30°C. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. A. palmeri can also suppress the growth of crops through allelopathy (EPPO, 2019). [16] Palmer amaranth in particular is highly competitive. It was used extensively by the native American population with at least seven tribes preparing it a wide variety of ways. Bryson CT, Defelice MS, 2010. The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. At sublethal levels, abortion, depression of lactation, digestive disturbances, myocardial degeneration and renal disease may occur (Kingsbury, 1964; Bryson and DeFelice, 2010). A., Rowland, D. L., Webster, T. M., 2015. Preparation of field The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. Populations in the eastern United States are probably naturalized. For infestations of maize fields, the use of glufosinate with atrazine is recommended. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/, Mohseni-Moghadam, M., Schroeder, J., Heerema, R., Ashigh, J., 2013. The range of A. palmeri is also expected to expand due to climate change that will create suitable conditions for its establishment. The Botanical Review, 83(4), 382-436.] To control herbicide-resistant A. palmeri the rotation of herbicides having different modes of action and using a combination of multiple herbicides is recommended (Chandi et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013; Jhala et al., 2014). "[18]:5 In 2015, Palmer amaranth was chosen as "weed-of-the-year" for the second year in a row as a "proactive approach to prevent Palmer amaranth establishment in North Dakota. amaranthus palmeri in tamil 10 October People decorated their homes and trees with paper flags; ritual races, processions, dances, songs, prayers, and finally human sacrifices were held. nov. Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation. Weed Science, 51(5), 696-701. doi: 10.1614/P2002-159, Steinmaus, S. J., Prather, T. S., Holt, J. S., 2000. Ecophysiology of Amaranthus palmeri, a Sonoran Desert summer annual. Department of Animal Science - Plants poisonous to livestock. [10] In only a few weeks, it can grow from 12 to 18 inches (300 to 460 mm) compared to cotton at 5 to 8 inches (130 to 200 mm). The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Weed Science, 56(5), 729-734. doi: 10.1614/WS-07-203.1, Jhala, A. J., Sandell, L. D., Rana, N., Kruger, G. R., Knezevic, S. Z., 2014. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. Amaranthus palmeri Plants. Grain sorghum is the sixth most common crop in the United States, being grown on 1.2 million ha in 2016 ().As with all crop production, competition with weeds is among the top yield reducers for grain sorghum (Thompson et al. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to desert and arid regions of southwestern USA and northern Mexico. This plant was widely used for food by Native … The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Amaranthus palmeri in Flora of North America . > 10°C, Cold average temp. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Some ant species that forage the seeds include Pheidole ridicula, P. absurda and Solenopsis invicta (Ward et al., 2013; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). Ehleringer J, 1983. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). The wind carries the pollen from resistant male plants to female plants. http://www.eol.org, EPPO, 2019. [1], Palmer amaranth is considered a threat most specifically to the production of cotton and soybean crops in the southern United States. Kindscher K, Martin L, Corbett S, Lafond D, 2018. Title Flora of N. America Publication Author Website More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. The dioecious species are included in the subgenus Acnida, all native to North America (Steckel, 2007). The aggressiveness and rapid growth of A palmeri enable it to outcompete other species and reduce native plant diversity, which at the same time can affect wildlife and pollinators (University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019). Weed Technology, 21(2), 567-570. In Delaware this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2014 and infests Soybean. > 10°C, Cold average temp. EPPO Global database. A. palmeri is reported in Asia, Africa, North America, the Caribbean, South America and Europe (Anastasiu et al., 2011; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; De Andrade et al., 2015; Iamonico and Monki, 2017; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; EPPO, 2019; EPPO, 2020; Euro+Med, 2019;  GRIIS, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019). (Sobre la presencia de Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranthaceae) en Argentina). Plants Profile- Amaranthus L[Assad, R., Reshi, Z. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Although A. palmeri is not shade tolerant, the species has shown morphological acclimation to shading (Jha et al., 2008). There is almost no information about the impact of A. palmeri on natural habitats; the information available is on its effects over cultivated land (Peterson, 1999; Wise et al., 2009; Ward et al., 2013; Berger et al., 2015; Cahoon et al., 2015). Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. There was a significant reduction in the number of pollen grains found in acetolyzed adults … The presence of oxalates in A. palmeri can also be harmful to livestock (Saunders and Becker, 1984). Peterson, D. E., 1999. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to northwestern Mexico, the south of California into New Mexico and Texas in the United States (Ward et al., 2013). The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The PLANTS Database. 2.5 kg/ha of seeds broadcasted evenly on the beds after mixing with 10 parts of sand. Rowland, M. W., Murray, D. S., Verhalen, L. M., 1999. This reference perhaps takes into consideration the presence of the species in the Dominican Republic in 1929 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019); nevertheless most of the references worldwide consider the species to be native only to North America. It has become one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds in the southeastern U.S. A. palmeri is an erect, branching, summer annual that usually grows from 6-8 ft (1.8-2.4 m) tall.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a native North American weed also known as careless weed, is recognized as one of the most troublesome weed species in the southern and southwestern United States (Webster, 2001).Palmer amaranth is a short-lived, summer annual plant that readily invades croplands (Steyermark, 1963). Research has shown that these particular … Oecologia, 57, 107-112. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/, Iamonico D, El-Mokni R, 2017. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. It is drought tolerant but prefers moist soils (PFAF, 2019). Nitrate poisoning may be lethal or sublethal, depending on levels in the plant. Here, we present the most contiguous draft assemblies of these three species to date. Plan for eradication of the Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in the Republic of South Africa. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri. Amaranthus palmeri has a very high risk of unintentional introduction through crop production and trade (Ward et al., 2013). 2019. A. palmeri is also an important host of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris), which is a major pest of cotton in the United States (Steckel, 2007). Maize yield has been reported to be reduced 11-91% with A. palmeri densities of 0.5 to 9 plants/m row (Massinga et al., 2001). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. A. palmeri has been reported as spreading through agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013). Human translations with examples: சிறுகீரை, arakkeerai, arai keerai, karibani keerai. J Cotton Sci 12:306–310 Google Scholar Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Weed Technology, 23(2), 214-220. doi: 10.1614/WT-08-098.1, World Flora Online, 2019. Amer. nov. Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation, 47(1), Art.#2100. Amaranthus palmeri NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Weed Science, 42(4), 523-527. It is an opportunistic weed with the ability to outcompete other species partly due to being able to germinate throughout the season, a rapid growth rate and prolific seed production (Ehleringer, 1983). Common weed, spreading into pinelands etc, Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango. Although this species can be used as forage it can be poisonous to livestock due to the high concentrations of nitrates present (Schmutz et al., 1974; Burrows and Tyrl, 2013). These publications usually give information on how to recognise the species, how to alert the local authorities about its presence and provide instructions on the eradication means available (De Andrade et al., 2015; Barber et al., 2015). Research was conducted during 2010 and 2011 to determine if Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield were affected by soybean plant population and combinations of … Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. It is native to most of the southern half of North America. [16], In 2014, North Dakota State University's "ND Weed Control Guide" selected Amaranthus palmeri, as "weed-of-the-year" to raise awareness about its "potentially devastating impact. Amaranthus palmeri . USA: The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Coconino County.https://www.nazinvasiveplants.org/, USDA-ARS, 2019. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herbaceous plant that is spreading rapidly beyond its native range in North America. American Journal of Botany, 55(1), 20-26. doi: 10.2307/2440487. Authors William T … [4] Palmer amaranth has a tendency to absorb excess soil nitrogen, and if grown in overly fertilized soils, it can contain excessive levels of nitrates, even for humans. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) has been a foraged food for a long time. [7][8][9] Glyphosate-resistant pigweed not only dominates in cotton fields, but also has wide-ranging effects on other crops and productions. http://www.griis.org/, Guo, P. G., Al-Khatib, K., 2003. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Proc. Plan for eradication of the Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in the Republic of South Africa., Centurion, South Africa: CropLife. [1][3] Palmer amaranth was once widely cultivated and eaten by Native Americans across North America, both for its abundant seeds and as a cooked or dried green vegetable. A. retroflexus and A. hybridus have puberulous stems and leaves, while A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus have glabrous stems and leaves. Seed rate. In: Weed Technology [Symposium on managing herbicide resistant weeds, 10 December, 1998, St. Paul, MN, USA], 13(3) . The resistance of some biotypes to various herbicides has been an important factor for the spread of A. palmeriis. Soil movement between fields should also be avoided. Florida Entomologist, 67(3), 402-408. doi: 10.2307/3494719. Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups B/2, and G/9. There are several reports of the dispersal of A. palmeri to areas or countries through contaminated grains or agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013; De Andrade et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. The mechanism of resistance is amplification of a 399-kb extrachromosomal circular DNA, called the EPSPS replicon, and is unique to glyphosate-resistant plants. Hybridization is widely reported in the genus, but hybrids with A. palmeri have been reported to be nonviable or sterile (Steinau et al., 2003; Ward et al., 2013). In: Encyclopedia of Life. PFAF, 2019. The use of drones to scan cultivated lands and one-kilometre radius around the farms is being recommended in South Africa to identify areas infested by A. palmeri (CropLife, 2019). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 48(2), 347-354. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722013000200016, Murphy, B. P., Plewa, D. E., Phillippi, E., Bissonnette, S. M., Tranel, P. J., 2017. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Alien plants of Belgium, 2019. Possible in packages used to transport crops. Potential geographic distribution of Palmer amaranth under current and future climates. The small seeds of A. palmeri are predominantly gravity-dispersed, but can also spread through water (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). In: EPPO Global database. EPPO Global database. The plant can be toxic to livestock animals due to the presence of nitrates in the leaves. Recommended POST herbicide treatments include: glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, and glyphosate + atrazine (Wiggins et al., 2015). 1192 pp. This includes cleaning footwear and clothing. The leaves are cooked and used as a vegetable and the seeds are ground into meal for food by the Navajo and Yuma tribes (Sauer, 1957). Amaranthus palmeri is native to to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Weed Technology, 29(3), 412-418. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-14-00145.1, Wise, A. M., Grey, T. L., Prostko, E. P., Vencill, W. K., Webster, T. M., 2009. Culpepper AS, Whitaker JR, MacRae AW, York AC (2008) Distribution of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Georgia and North Carolina during 2005–2006. Euro+Med, 2019. Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase). DOI:10.1002/ps.4632, USDA-ARS, 2019. De Andrade Jr ER , Cavenaghi AL, Guimarães SC, 2015. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019, Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers), Debris and waste associated with human activities, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019, https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/php/plants.php?action=display, https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf, https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/palmeramaranth, http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722013000200016, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Accidental introduction from shipping (no details given). In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual dioecious forb native to the area encompassing north-western Mexico and the south-western US (Ward, Webster, & Steckel, 2013). Proposed research include: the effects of light quality on growth response of A. palmeri; the effects of shading on fecundity and seed dormancy (Jha et al., 2008); mechanisms that regulate the persistence of the species in the soil seedbank (Webster and Grey, 2015); and models of potential pollen movement to help in herbicide resistance management programmes (Ward et al., 2013).